Reference lists in project reports and assignments

Reference lists in project reports and assignments

The reference list is an alphabetical list of all references cited in your report/assignment. In other words, it is a list of all the works which you have listed as source references in your project.

The reference list must contain more information on the works than in-text references. In principle, your reference list must include all information required to clearly identify your source reference in a library, database, etc. The type of source will determine which exact pieces of information are required; however, the following outlines the most essential guidelines. Communication and Digital Media has decided that all reference lists must be completed in accordance with the APA Style.

Below is a selection of reference types on which APA 6th edition have been used.

Please note: In your reference list, every line after the first line of a reference must be indented, and all text must be double-spaced. This is not easily displayed on a website which is why the examples provided below are not completely accurate in following the above rules.


Author last name, first name initials. (year of publication). Title: subtitle (in italics). (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

One author, example:

Kvale, S. (1997). Interview: En introduktion til det kvalitative forskningsinterview. Copenhagen K: Hans Reitzels Forlag.

Two authors, example:

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interview: Introduktion til et håndværk (2nd ed.). Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag.

Three authors, example:

Hagen, K. B., Herbert, R., Jamtvedt, G., & Mead, J. (2008). Evidensbaseret praksis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard Denmark.

Multiple authors are separated by commas and two authors are separated by “&”. You may list up to 7 authors; before the last author you must include the following: , & . For references with 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors followed by “, ...” and the name of the last author.  Do not include the edition of a book if it is a first edition. Place of publication refers to the city in which the book was published.


Author (chapter author) last name, first name initials. (year of publication). The title of the chapter. In editor(s) first name initials, last name, (Ed.), book title (in italics). (Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.


Halkier, B. (2010). Fokusgrupper. In S. Brinkmann & L. Tanggaard (Ed.), Kvalitative Metoder: en grundbog (p. 121). Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels.


Author last name, first name initials. (year of publication). Article title. Journal title (in italics), volume (in italics) (volume number), page numbers.


Jakobsen, R. (1967). Lingvistik og poetik. Vindrosen, 14(7), 41-62.


Author last name, first name initials. (year of publication). Article title. Journal title (in italics), volume (in italics) (volume number), page numbers. Link indicating the URL from where the article may be retrieved.


Wodak, R., & Reisigl, M. (1999). Discourse and racism: European perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28(1), 175-199. Retrieved from


The title is listed instead of an author’s name and the information outlined above is included, as far as possible.


DOI (digital object identifier) is an electronic form of ISBN, e.g. 10.1177/1077800414562896. It is a permanent identifier given to electronic documents which enables a document to be located even if its URL is changed. You can search for documents by directly typing or pasting a DOI number into your browser. If your electronic material has a DOI number, this must be included in your reference. 


Revsbæk, L., & Tanggaard, L. (2015). Analyzing in the present. Qualitative Inquiry, 21(4), 376-387.


For web documents, include the source, the title (in italics), the date and the URL.


The Danish Institute for Human Rights. The UN Human Rights System. Retrieved March 2, 2015, from


Alphabetise your reference list by the last name of the author. For references including more than one author, alphabetise by the last name of the author listed as the first author in a book, article, etc. Always list authors in the order in which they are listed in the source. If you include several sources by the same author, these must be listed chronologically. If you include several sources by the same author and the same year of publication, add an a, b, c, etc. immediately after the year of publication; this is done both in in-text citations and in the reference list.

To avoid plagiarism, it is essential that your reference list completely complies with the requirements. Therefore, it might be a good idea for you to continuously update your reference list throughout the project period. If you remember to do so, you may avoid returning a book without having noted its details.


  • The title of a book (and its subtitle) MUST be in italics.
  • For chapters in edited books, the title of the book MUST be in italics, not the title of the chapter.
  • For journal articles, the name of the journal and the volume number must be in italics.
  • For electronic articles from journals found in online databases, the URL of the article must be included.